Here's a cool example from The Science of Us :. In a study , researchers gave participants an assortment of random objects, including a rubber band. Some of them were asked to think about what the objects were, while others were told to think about what the objects could be. Then, they asked participants to erase a mark without using an eraser.
The people who'd been primed to think could "were more likely to recognize that a rubber band could be used in lieu of an eraser, compared to those who considered what these objects were. Though they seem and sound so similar, research shows that "should" tends to narrow one's field of vision and limits potential answers, while "could" opens up your mind to new possibilities. Another "magic word" from Tim David: "Yes. First, the salespeople went about their business as usual. The word "together" is all about relatedness, belonging, and interconnectivity.
So it's not too surprising that using this word can help teams become more efficient.
A Stanford study had participants work on difficult puzzles on their own, although one group was told they would be working on their task "together" and could receive a tip from a team member. Words like "let's" and "we" can also help build connection and sense of togetherness, according to Tim David.
Gratitude can not only make your life happier --it could also help you further your professional relationships and career. As research shows, thanking a new acquaintance for their help makes them more likely to seek an ongoing social relationship with you. In a study of 70 students who provided advice to a younger student, only some were thanked for their advice. Those who were thanked were more likely to provide their contact details when asked, such as their phone number or email address, for the mentee.
The mentees who gave out thank-yous were also rated as having significantly warmer personalities. According to gratitude researcher Jeffrey Froh, these are the five key elements of an effective thank-you:. Step 1. What do you do in your life that you don't experience as playful? List on a piece of paper all those things that you tell yourself you have to do. List any activity you dread but do anyway because you perceive yourself to have no choice. Step 2. After completing your list, clearly acknowledge to yourself that you are doing these things because you choose to do them, not because you have to.
Insert the words "I choose to Where it is not possible for the experts to provide a uniform expert opinion, they should record precisely those issues in which they are on disagreement. To avoid problems with clarity and simplicity, the number of experts appointed should remain manageable and not become too large. It should be limited to a certain number that depends on the complexity and expediency of the question under examination.
This number should be defined by the court or by law. In the event that there are many different experts preparing expert opinions, it has to be clearly and unequivocally visible which expert is responsible for which parts of the expert opinion. Nevertheless the expert opinion has to be signed by each single expert.
If the expert who has been appointed by the court is not able to conduct the preparation of the expert opinion e. The court instructs an expert. It can also ask the parties to make a proposal concerning the person intended to be the expert. There is no duty on the parties to propose an expert; they only have the right to do so if they so wish. Usually the court must appoint the expert without the parties because there is no concurrent proposal for a qualified expert by both parties.
Here the court in any case has to appoint the expert according to specific selection criteria. The general principle of the selection should be the qualification of the expert. The court — either the deciding judge or the administrative body of the court — has to appoint an expert according to the following selection criteria. The compilation of lists of experts to be checked and updated on a regular basis by the court meeting these criteria may be very helpful in the selection process; the court should be free, however, to appoint experts not on the list if the circumstances of the case so require.
Choose Your Words
Determination of expert knowledge. The qualification depends on the area of expertise and on the specific task. Experts from the area of science and research normally have a broad expertise. The expertise can also be gained through practical experience, though. The requirements regarding the qualification of the expert therefore vary according to the different job profiles and the assignment of tasks. Factual independence and personal impartiality. The expert has to remain independent concerning the matter under examination and must be impartial concerning the relationship with both parties.
However, in this case it must be possible to introduce the opposite scientific position in the proceedings. The expert must have the time and the technical devices to conduct the assessment within the case management timetable and in a correct way. Predictable costs. The lowest hourly rate must not be a selection criterion, because the danger of not appointng an independent and competent expert could easily arise.
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Because of this, it may be necessary to appoint a potentially local expert to minimise the expenses. If there is no legally prescribed system for the remuneration of court-appointed experts, the average cost of an expert should be taken as a valid selection criterion. The selection of the expert cannot be made dependent on whether the expert has already had experience with judicial assessments. On the other hand, it is also important to consider that an expert who is always appointed for the same kind of questions runs the risk of lacking factual independence.
Judicial occupational experts can, but need not, be selected. Predictability of the outcome of the assessment. Predictability of the outcome of the assessment cannot be a selection criterion. Predictability sometimes cannot be eliminated if the expert upholds a certain scientific opinion. However, it is not permitted knowingly to appoint an expert supporting a certain scientific view in order to influence the outcome of the assessment.
In any case, experts should indicate clearly whether they align themselves to a prevailing scientific view and, if not, why they have decided not to do so. Rather, there should always be an effort to appoint an independent expert or a panel of experts who can present all different scientific views and who can then decide for one of them, explaining the reasons to the court and the parties.
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The expert should be able to present his expert opinion in clear and comprehensible language and, where necessary, also in the required official language used in court. The nationality of the expert, and especially that of the country of the court, is unimportant and therefore not a selection criterion.
Decisiveness and reference to results. It can be assumed that this is usually the case with forensically experienced experts.
The selection criteria have to be considered in an overview. The general principle must be the competent, independent and impartial expert who can prepare an expert opinion with regard to a well-regulated court proceeding. Only thus can it be guaranteed that the fact-finding is correct and helpful for the court procedure.
In the course of such a selection procedure the following rules should be obeyed:. The person appointing the expert can either be the judge who deals with the lawsuit or an administrative body of the court. The expert can either be selected during the core procedure of the lawsuit or in a special, separate procedure. The general principle of the selection procedure has to be guaranteeing a certain standard quality, hence the aim of finding a competent and independent expert with no conflicts of interest.
Free selection or binding requirements. During the judicial selection process there is the possibility of allowing a single selector a free choice according to the listed selection criteria. Agreed experts. There was only one person whose opinion he truly valued. Similarly, your broker's recommendation to buy or sell AOL Time Warner is only one person 's opinion.